Saturday, October 14. 1704.
THE Success of the Hungarians, under Count Teckely, after they had put themselves under the Protection of the Turk, is the present Subject we are upon; whether God Almighty, in his Righteous Providence, Punish’d them for their Infidelity and Distrust, in quitting their Dependence upon his Omnipotence, and flying to his Enemies for Aid; whether it was for their Disloyalty to the Emperor, or for their Cruelties in the Execution of their Resentments against the Germans; or for what other Reasons, I am willing to leave that Particular undecided.
’Tis my proper Business to make out the Fact, as I have alledg’d it in several past Papers; viz. That from the time that they abandon’d their Faith, Revolted from, and Betray’d the Christian Army, under the Duke of Lorrain, on the River Raab; the Consequences of which, were that dreadful Eruption of the Tartars into the German part of Lower Hungary, into Austria, Stiria, and Moravia; the Destruction of a Plentiful, Flourishing, and some of it Protestant Country, for above 100 Miles Square; the Murther or Captivity of above 40000 Innocent Christians, the Retreat or Flight of the Imperial Army, and after that the Siege of Vienna: From this time the Divine Protection visibly forsook them, and Heaven seem’d plainly to have left them to the Vengeance and Punishment of their own ways, fill’d them with their own doings, and they fell before the Germans as Grass beneath the hands of the Mower.
The first instance of this we have in Sir Roger Manley’s History aforemention’d, under the Head of the Seige of Vienna.
The Hungarians, who, as has been already Noted, Concerted Measures with the Grand Visier at Buda, had contriv’d effectually to Secure the Ruin of Vienna, by placing themselves on the Borders of Austria, so Securing the Passes of the Mountains on that side, effectually to prevent the King of Poland, who was then on his March to Relive the City; had they Succeeded in their Design, the Poles could not have come at all, or else must have March’d so far about, that it had been impossible for Vienna, which, as it was, found it self reduc’d to the last extremity, to have held out till their Arrival.
Teckely’s Design was upon the City of Presburgh, in Lower Hungary, where he was to lay a Bridge over the Danube, so to form a Communication between his Army and the Turks, before Vienna; he had with him 20000 Hungarians, Protestants we call’d them, 8000 Turks under the Bassa of Great Warradin, and upon Advice of the approach of the Poles, was to be join’d by 20000 Janizaries, and 5000 Turkish Horse, and so to advance to meet the Poles on the Frontiers of Silefia, and keep them in play, till the City of Vienna should fall into the hands of the Turks.
’Tis own’d this was a Fatal Policy, at least it would have been so, had it succeeded; and the Hungarians manifested the Truth of what I have often alledg’d in their behalf; viz. That if the Turks are not Masters of the whole German Empire, nay, and of all the rest of Europe, ’tis none of their fault.
’Tis an ill Case when Men push their Crimes to so violent an extream, that they, as it were, force the Providence of God to turn upon ’em, or to abandon all the rest of its peculiar Care; the Hungarians seem’d to Act, as if they would have brought God Almighty to a necessity of letting loose his Vengeance at them, or forsaking all the Christian Churches of Europe, Delivering them over to the Desolation of the Barbarians, and Transplanting the Gospel of his Son, into some other part of the World.
What they could expect, or what they propos’d to themselves in such Preposterous Precipitant Madness, I won’t pretend to determine; the Fact only lies before me as the proper business of this Paper.
In Order to bring this Hellish Design to Perfection, Count Teckely advanc’d to Presburgh, while the Grand Visier push’d the Siege of Vienna with all possible vigor: Being come to Presburgh, the Citizens were easily prevail’d with, to open their Gates to their Treacherous Brethren; but a German Garrison having Possession of the Castle, refused to Surrender, and resolv’d to Defend it.
The Town being Taken, the Bridge over the Danube was begun with all possible expedition; Teckely advanc’d to Besiege the Castle, beat Major Okelby with a Party of 200 Foot, and 300 Horse for Convoy, design’d to relieve the Garrison, and Campt with his whole Body within a League of the Castle.
This Paper has not room to make long Journals; it shall suffice to say, the Duke of Lorrain foreseeing the Design, and that the Absolute Ruin of all the Emperor’s Affairs depended upon this Point, resolv’d, whatever it cost, to blow up this Mine; accordingly with all his Army, which consisted of 8000 Horse, and 2000 Dragoons, Foot he had none, having parted with all his Infantry, to Defend the City of Vienna; with this unequal Force, but with this unequal superiour Conduct, he advanc’d to Presburgh.
He put 300 Men into the Castle, summon’d the City, and frighted them into a Surrender, in sight of Teckely and 30000 Men; and resolving to push his good Fortune, he immediately mov’d on, beat the Advanc’d Parties of the Malecontents, with small resistance, from the Vineyards and Hills beyond the Town, till appearing on the heights, to the side of the Danube, he saw their whole Army in two great Bodies, advancing in full Battalia to meet him: Not at all daunted with this sight, or the superiority of their Force, he readily March’d down into the Plains, and gives them Battle; where, after a faint Resistance, he routed them, beat them out of the Field, took from them all their Baggage, a Thousand Waggons of Provisions, and Burnt and Destroy’d all their Materials for the Bridge of Communication, mention’d above.
’Tis observ’d, That after this Fight, Teckely and his Hungarians rallied their Forces not far off; for the Duke of Lorrain having obtain’d his end, did not think fit to pursue them in such a dangerous Condition of Affairs; but they not thinking themselves safe, retired in the Night, and left the Bassa of Warradin, with his Turks, to shift for themselves.
I fansie they, who are so fond of the Hungarians, do not know the Character they have generally obtain’d in the World, Fierce, Cruel, Unconstant and Faithless: ’Tis true, Characters of Nations can never include all the Inhabitants; but as a National Character must be General, there are a Multitude of particular Persons who are exceptions to this Rule; and no doubt but there are abundance of very Honest, Good Men among them, good Christians and good Gentlemen, Men of Religion, and Men of Honour.
But when we speak of the Nation in general, I know no People in the World, who have so often Revolted from This side to That, and continually abandon’d even their Helpers, when they have found themselves press’d, as the Hungarians.
How many times have we seen the Transilvanians, who I conclude in the same Nation and Character, change their Masters, their Faith, and their Engagement? now to the Emperor, anon to the Turks; to day to this Prince, to Morrow to that; old Ragotski was five or six times in and out of their Government; the Turk has put to their Princes to day, to Morrow the Emperor; just as the fickle Humour of the People thought fit to apply this way, or that way, for Protection.
It would Employ this Paper many Months, to relate the Numerous Particulars of the falshood and inconstancy of the Hungarians and Transilvanians, both Princes and People, of whom Sigismund, Prince of Transilvania, is a remarkable Instance; who having in a Multitude of Heroick Actions, Deliver’d his Country by the slaughter of his Enemies; four times beaten Sinan Bassa  with 150000 Turks, and at last remain’d Conqueror, fickle and unstable in his Prosperity, Resign’d his Country to the Emperor, and Contracting with him for Lands in Germany, and an Annual Pension, retir’d to live a Private Life; but after some Months, facing about again, quits his Retreat, privately gets into Transilvania, and reassumes the Government again; in a Years time more, he makes a second Voluntary Concession of all his Territories and Dominions to the Emperor, always at his own Motion, without any Violence or Desire of the Emperor’s; and while he had made this second Agreement, and the Ambassadors were gone to Vienna to Exchange the Articles, he began another Treaty with the Cardinal Bathor of Poland, and Surrendered all his Dominions to him, and he submitted them to the Turks.
This is indeed remote to our Purpose, and only nam’d as an Instance of the Temper of these People, which was as plainly made out in this Action of the Duke of Lorrain at Presbourgh; for as soon as ever they were beaten and scatter’d by the Germans, they forsook their New Friends, the Turks, and left them to the Mercy of the Germans; which the Bassa of Warradin resented so highly, that he would have fallen upon them as Enemies, had not the Grand Visier over-rul’d him; and when after, by the Perswasion or Command of the Grand Visier, the Bassa of Warradin, agreed to joyn with the Hungarians; the Janizaries mutined, and refused to March, till they were threatned with being forced to it by a Detachment from their main Army.
This unconstant Humour of the Hungarians, is a full Demonstration of the necessity the Emperor had to maintain his Possession of the Frontiers of their Kingdom, by the German Troops; for what Assurance or Dependance could his Imperial Majesty have upon the Fidelity of a Nation, who had in so many occasions, discovered the unsettled Resolution of their whole Body, and their easiness to be drawn in, to deliver themselves up to the Enemies of Christendom, the Turks?
This Defeat of the Hungarians was the beginning of their Sorrows; and the first Token that they were abandon’d of Heaven; we shall soon see them entirely scatter’d and suppress’d.
ADVICE from the Scandal. CLUB.
THE Monthly Supplement to our Society’s Transactions, now in the Press, is so far from easing their hands, that they find still more Business than they can dispatch; and therefore are obliged to tell those Gentlemen, who find themselves too long Postponed, that the next Suppliment will follow in three Weeks, in Order to give them satisfaction.
A Certain Citizen of N—h was brought before the Club, for saying he was a Member of a Society lately Erected there, for Reformation of Manners.
The Society Charg’d him with Prevarication, having been inform’d that there was no such Society Erected there; and that the said Citizens were a great deal farther from desiring, than they were from wanting it — The Person affirm’d, there was a small Number of Honest Gentlemen, that to the utmost of their Power, endeavoured the suppressing of Vice and Immoralities; the Society catching at that word, Order’d them all to be summon’d before them, for not doing their Duty, and for suffering the high Street of the City to be hung with Bawdy, Obscene and Scandalous Pictures, during their last Guild or Mayor’s Feast Show, as by good Testimony could be made appear, to the great Scandal of that City, and Offence of all good People.
The Man answered, the Fact was true enough; but that they were no way to blame, for that they had used their utmost endeavours to suppress them, but could not get one Magistrate to Concern himself in the Matter; some Banter’d them, some ask’d them to describe the Pictures; One Grave Magistrate talk’d Bawdy to them; another swore at them, a third carry’d his Wife and Daughter out to look at them; the M— laught at them, and Justice S— told them they were busy Fellows; so they had no way left, unless they would have Mob’d the Houses; and they did not find the People much the forwarder, for their Magistrates being backward, so they were forc’d to give it over.
The Society Voted the Citizens had discharg’d their Duty, and caused it to be enter’d in their Books, that the City of N— is the least Reform’d, and has the worst Magistrates in the Nation.
The following Case being of some Nicety, occasioned no small Debate in the Society.
I Am a young Man, sincerely in Love with a Vertuous young Lady; who, I am satisfied, bears me an equal Respect.
I have obtain’d hers, and her Friends Consent, for Marriage, but my own are wanting. Now I desire to know, whether I ought to obey my Father’s Commands, not to Marry, or do it, and incur his Displeasure?
Your Answer shall determine my Resolution, and oblige
Your Humble Servant,
The Chief Dispute on this Letter depended upon the words, Sincerely in Love; a Vertuous young Woman, and she bearing an equal Respect.
The Resolves of the Society on this occasion, are as follow; all these first Articles, Sir, are sum’d up in this, That the Woman you would Marry, has the way clear for her to come to you, viz. Her Love to you, and her Friends Consent.
But your Father’s Negative seems to bar the way from you; and this the Society Answers thus.
1. You say your Father Commands you not to Marry; this is suppos’d to be a Mistake of your own, and to mean not in general, Commanding you not to Marry at all, but in Particular, not this Woman.
If the Father’s Command be, not to Marry at all; the Society freely tells you, ’tis assuming a Power he has no Right to; and you may Lawfully disobey him: because the Laws of God having left you free, and Matrimony being God’s Ordinance, no Paternal Authority can bind you in that Case.
But if you mean, your Father Commands you not to Marry this Particular Lady, then the Society Demands, how Old you are?
If of Age, tho’ the Father’s Command ought always to be regarded by you with the utmost Deference; yet they presume he is then oblig’d to joyn his Reasons to his Command.
If you are under Age, they Vote you under your Father’s Absolute Government, and that you ought not to Disobey him, nor ask his Reasons.
If you are willing to be Directed in this Case, Sir, the Society advise you as follows:
Bring some Friends of your own, and your Father’s, Men of Honesty and Candor; with due Respect to your Father, desire his Reasons why he Commands you not to Marry this Person, and offer your own why you desire it; and making those indifferent Persons Judges of the Validity of your Father’s Reasons, and your own, take their Vote for, or against it; if your Father refuses to give his Reasons, and you are of Age, they think you may Marry without him; if he gives his Reasons, and those Judges give it for him, that his Arguments are good, you are not only Disobedient but Mad, if you proceed; for, without Question, a Father’s Command, back’d with effectual Reasons, and those Reasons judg’d so, by Indifferent, Honest, and Judicious Men, have a double Obligation, and you can never break through it.
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